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Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds): Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh
Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, House-10, 16A, Gulshan-1, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, 1342, Bangladesh
International Centre for Climate Change and Development, Plot 16, Block B, Aftabuddin Ahmed Road, Bashundhara R/A, 1212, Bangladesh
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2013; in revised form: 26 March 2013 / Accepted: 27 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Abstract: Most climate related hazards in Bangladesh are linked to water. The climate vulnerable poor—the poorest and most marginalized communities living in remote villages along Bangladesh’s coastal zone that are vulnerable to climate change impacts and who possess low adaptive capacity are most affected by lack of access to safe water sources. Many climate vulnerable poor households depend on small isolated wetlands (ponds) for daily drinking water needs and other domestic requirements, including cooking, bathing and washing. Similarly, the livelihoods of many of these households also depend on access to ponds due to activities of small-scale irrigation for rice farming, vegetable farming and home gardening. This is particularly true for those poorest and most marginalized communities living in Satkhira, one of the most vulnerable coastal districts in south-west Bangladesh. These households rely on pond water for vegetable farming and home gardening, especially during winter months. However, these pond water sources are highly vulnerable to climate change induced hazards, including flooding, drought, salinity intrusion, cyclone and storm surges, erratic rainfall patterns and variations in temperature. Cyclone Sidr and Cyclone Aila, which hit Bangladesh in 2007 and 2009 respectively, led to a significant number of such ponds being inundated with saline water. This impacted upon and resulted in wide scale implications for climate vulnerable poor households, including reduced availability of safe drinking water, and safe water for health and hygiene practices and livelihood activities. Those households living in remote areas and who are most affected by these climate impacts are dependent on water being supplied through aid, as well as travelling long distances to collect safe water for drinking purposes.
Keywords: climate change; Bangladesh; coastal zone; water; cyclone; salinity intrusion; flooding; ponds; impacts; adaptation; climate vulnerable poor communities
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Rabbani, G.; Rahman, S.H.; Faulkner, L. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds): Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh. Sustainability 2013, 5, 1510-1521.
Rabbani G, Rahman SH, Faulkner L. Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds): Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh. Sustainability. 2013; 5(4):1510-1521.
Rabbani, Golam; Rahman, Syed H.; Faulkner, Lucy. 2013. "Impacts of Climatic Hazards on the Small Wetland Ecosystems (ponds): Evidence from Some Selected Areas of Coastal Bangladesh." Sustainability 5, no. 4: 1510-1521.