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Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons
AbstractThis paper develops mathematical models of the tragedy of the commons analogous to ecological models of resource consumption. Tragedies differ fundamentally from predator–prey relationships in nature because human consumers of a resource are rarely controlled solely by that resource. Tragedies do occur, however, at the level of the ecosystem, where multiple species interactions are involved. Human resource systems are converging rapidly toward ecosystem-type systems as the number of exploited resources increase, raising the probability of system-wide tragedies in the human world. Nevertheless, common interests exclusive of exploited commons provide feasible options for avoiding tragedy in a converged world.
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Roopnarine, P. Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons. Sustainability 2013, 5, 749-773.View more citation formats
Roopnarine P. Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons. Sustainability. 2013; 5(2):749-773.Chicago/Turabian Style
Roopnarine, Peter. 2013. "Ecology and the Tragedy of the Commons." Sustainability 5, no. 2: 749-773.