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Sustainability 2013, 5(12), 5319-5332; doi:10.3390/su5125319

Measuring Carbon Emissions Performance in 123 Countries: Application of Minimum Distance to the Strong Efficiency Frontier Analysis

1
School of Economics and Business Administration, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China
2
School of Public Affairs, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 9 December 2013
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Abstract

In this paper, we have proposed a general approach to obtain a projection of the nearest targets and minimum distance for a given unit. The method takes undesirable output into account. The idea behind it is that nearest targets and minimum distance lead to less variation in inputs and outputs of the inefficient decision making units (DMUs) being evaluated to reach the production possibility set (PPS) frontier. Our results have shown that the carbon emissions comprehensive performance indexes (CECPIs) of developing countries are lower than those of developed countries, and that the inefficiency shares of energy consumption, capital stock and desirable output are declining while those of labor force and undesirable output are climbing. Further, using cluster analysis, we have shown that nine countries, including Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Iraq, should take severe measures to save energy and reduce carbon emissions. Moreover, the gap in CECPIs among the 123 countries is narrowing by kernel density estimation.
Keywords: carbon emissions efficiency; minimum distance to the strong efficiency frontier; kernel density estimation; cluster analysis; data envelopment analysis carbon emissions efficiency; minimum distance to the strong efficiency frontier; kernel density estimation; cluster analysis; data envelopment analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Wang, L.; Chen, Z.; Ma, D.; Zhao, P. Measuring Carbon Emissions Performance in 123 Countries: Application of Minimum Distance to the Strong Efficiency Frontier Analysis. Sustainability 2013, 5, 5319-5332.

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