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Sustainability 2013, 5(12), 5319-5332; doi:10.3390/su5125319
Article

Measuring Carbon Emissions Performance in 123 Countries: Application of Minimum Distance to the Strong Efficiency Frontier Analysis

1,* , 2,* , 1
 and 1
Received: 6 October 2013; in revised form: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 9 December 2013
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Abstract: In this paper, we have proposed a general approach to obtain a projection of the nearest targets and minimum distance for a given unit. The method takes undesirable output into account. The idea behind it is that nearest targets and minimum distance lead to less variation in inputs and outputs of the inefficient decision making units (DMUs) being evaluated to reach the production possibility set (PPS) frontier. Our results have shown that the carbon emissions comprehensive performance indexes (CECPIs) of developing countries are lower than those of developed countries, and that the inefficiency shares of energy consumption, capital stock and desirable output are declining while those of labor force and undesirable output are climbing. Further, using cluster analysis, we have shown that nine countries, including Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Iraq, should take severe measures to save energy and reduce carbon emissions. Moreover, the gap in CECPIs among the 123 countries is narrowing by kernel density estimation.
Keywords: carbon emissions efficiency; minimum distance to the strong efficiency frontier; kernel density estimation; cluster analysis; data envelopment analysis carbon emissions efficiency; minimum distance to the strong efficiency frontier; kernel density estimation; cluster analysis; data envelopment analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Chen, Z.; Ma, D.; Zhao, P. Measuring Carbon Emissions Performance in 123 Countries: Application of Minimum Distance to the Strong Efficiency Frontier Analysis. Sustainability 2013, 5, 5319-5332.

AMA Style

Wang L, Chen Z, Ma D, Zhao P. Measuring Carbon Emissions Performance in 123 Countries: Application of Minimum Distance to the Strong Efficiency Frontier Analysis. Sustainability. 2013; 5(12):5319-5332.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Ling; Chen, Zhongchang; Ma, Dalai; Zhao, Pei. 2013. "Measuring Carbon Emissions Performance in 123 Countries: Application of Minimum Distance to the Strong Efficiency Frontier Analysis." Sustainability 5, no. 12: 5319-5332.


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