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Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia
Water and Environmental Research Institute of the Western Pacific, University of Guam, UOG Station, Mangilao 96923, Guam
Received: 26 July 2013; in revised form: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
Abstract: A survey of wastewater treatment facilities in the Federated States of Micronesia revealed a lack of fully functional treatment systems and conditions that potentially could lead to adverse environmental impacts and public health concerns. Due to inadequate facilities, the amount and composition of wastewater entering the plants as well as the degree of treatment being achieved is largely unknown. In some cases raw sewage is being discharged directly into the ocean and waste sludge is regularly taken by local residents for agricultural purposes without adequate treatment. In addition, the need to establish best management practices for placement and maintenance of septic tanks is urgent. Furthermore, development of eco-friendly solutions is needed to more effectively treat wastewater from industrial and agricultural sources in an effort to abate current pollution problems. Comparisons of treatment methods being used and problems encountered at different locations in the islands would provide valuable information to aid in the development of sustainable treatment practices throughout Micronesia.
Keywords: wastewater treatment; sewage sludge; attached growth; septic tanks; composting; vetiver grass; sustainable infrastructure; tropical islands; Micronesia
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Rouse, J.D. Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia. Sustainability 2013, 5, 4183-4194.
Rouse JD. Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia. Sustainability. 2013; 5(10):4183-4194.
Rouse, Joseph D. 2013. "Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment and Excess Sludge Handling Practices in the Federated States of Micronesia." Sustainability 5, no. 10: 4183-4194.