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Heaven and Earth—Sustaining Elements in Hakka Tulou
Tsung Tsin Association of Ontario, 3880 Midland Ave, Scarborough, ON M1V 5K4, Canada
Received: 19 August 2012; in revised form: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 16 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
Abstract: Hakka culture reveals how the ancient Chinese lived. Hakka architecture yields much evidence that modern Hakka culture of the south flows from the ancient stream of the north. The genius of the Hakka is best seen in the unique roundhouses of the mountainous borderland of three provinces—Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi. However, in completing the fourth of five migrations, the Hakka returned to the traditional building styles of the northern plains of China and built Wufenglou on the plains of southern Guangdong province. The structures not only facilitate environmental sustainability, but endow the inhabitants with material, social and spiritual sustainability.
Keywords: Hakka Tulou; sustainability; Hakka culture; Han culture; Heaven and Earth; rammed earth; earth buildings; round house (yuanlou); oval house (weilonglou); five-phoenix house (wufenglou)
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Lowe, K.D. Heaven and Earth—Sustaining Elements in Hakka Tulou. Sustainability 2012, 4, 2795-2802.
Lowe KD. Heaven and Earth—Sustaining Elements in Hakka Tulou. Sustainability. 2012; 4(11):2795-2802.
Lowe, Keith D. 2012. "Heaven and Earth—Sustaining Elements in Hakka Tulou." Sustainability 4, no. 11: 2795-2802.