Sustainability 2012, 4(11), 2795-2802; doi:10.3390/su4112795

Heaven and Earth—Sustaining Elements in Hakka Tulou

Received: 19 August 2012; in revised form: 15 October 2012 / Accepted: 16 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Hakka culture reveals how the ancient Chinese lived. Hakka architecture yields much evidence that modern Hakka culture of the south flows from the ancient stream of the north. The genius of the Hakka is best seen in the unique roundhouses of the mountainous borderland of three provinces—Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi. However, in completing the fourth of five migrations, the Hakka returned to the traditional building styles of the northern plains of China and built Wufenglou on the plains of southern Guangdong province. The structures not only facilitate environmental sustainability, but endow the inhabitants with material, social and spiritual sustainability.
Keywords: Hakka Tulou; sustainability; Hakka culture; Han culture; Heaven and Earth; rammed earth; earth buildings; round house (yuanlou); oval house (weilonglou); five-phoenix house (wufenglou)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lowe, K.D. Heaven and Earth—Sustaining Elements in Hakka Tulou. Sustainability 2012, 4, 2795-2802.

AMA Style

Lowe KD. Heaven and Earth—Sustaining Elements in Hakka Tulou. Sustainability. 2012; 4(11):2795-2802.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lowe, Keith D. 2012. "Heaven and Earth—Sustaining Elements in Hakka Tulou." Sustainability 4, no. 11: 2795-2802.

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