Sustainability 2011, 3(10), 1833-1854; doi:10.3390/su3101833
Article

Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California

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Received: 10 June 2011; in revised form: 1 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 12 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Studies in EROI (Energy Return on Investment))
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study explores the impact of oil depletion on the energetic efficiency of oil extraction and refining in California. These changes are measured using energy return ratios (such as the energy return on investment, or EROI). I construct a time-varying first-order process model of energy inputs and outputs of oil extraction. The model includes factors such as oil quality, reservoir depth, enhanced recovery techniques, and water cut. This model is populated with historical data for 306 California oil fields over a 50 year period. The model focuses on the effects of resource quality decline, while technical efficiencies are modeled simply. Results indicate that the energy intensity of oil extraction in California increased significantly from 1955 to 2005. This resulted in a decline in the life-cycle EROI from 6.5 to 3.5 (measured as megajoules (MJ) delivered to final consumers per MJ primary energy invested in energy extraction, transport, and refining). Most of this decline in energy returns is due to increasing need for steam-based thermal enhanced oil recovery, with secondary effects due to conventional resource depletion (e.g., increased water cut).
Keywords: oil depletion; energy return on investment; energy efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brandt, A.R. Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California. Sustainability 2011, 3, 1833-1854.

AMA Style

Brandt AR. Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California. Sustainability. 2011; 3(10):1833-1854.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brandt, Adam R. 2011. "Oil Depletion and the Energy Efficiency of Oil Production: The Case of California." Sustainability 3, no. 10: 1833-1854.

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