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Sustainability 2010, 2(12), 3747-3776; doi:10.3390/su2123747
Article

A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An Integrated Assessment in the UK

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Received: 8 November 2010; Accepted: 30 November 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment)
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Abstract: An integrated environmental and economic assessment of land use for food, energy and timber in the UK has been performed using environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and economic Life Cycle Costing (LCC), to explore complementary sustainability aspects of alternative land uses. The environmental assessment includes impacts on climate change, ecosystem services and biodiversity, all of which include soil carbon emissions. The systems explored include all processes from cradle to farm ‘gate’. The crops assessed were wheat and oilseed rape (under both organic and conventional farming systems), Scots Pine, and willow and Miscanthus. Food crops, particularly conventional food crops, are shown to have the highest climate-changing emissions per ha, whereas energy and forestry crops show negative net emissions. To a lesser extent, the same situation applies to impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity, with carbon storage in biomass playing a larger role than carbon in soils. The energy and forestry crops in this study show an overall beneficial environmental impact, in particular due to soil carbon sequestration, making these land uses the lowest contributors to climate change. Combining this with the non-renewable CO2 emissions displaced will mean that energy crops have an even lower impact. Economically, conventional food crops present the highest costs per ha, followed by organic food crops, energy and forestry crops. Integrating the results from LCA and LCC shows that the climate impacts per monetary unit of all land uses are dominated by soil management and, in the case of food production, also by fertilisation. Taxes or incentives such as “carbon charging” will encourage changes in practice in these areas to improve the sustainability of land management, mainly by building up Soil Organic Carbon (SOC).
Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA); life cycle costing (LCC); land use; agriculture; silviculture; energy Crops; bioenergy life cycle assessment (LCA); life cycle costing (LCC); land use; agriculture; silviculture; energy Crops; bioenergy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brandão, M.; Clift, R.; Canals, L.M.; Basson, L. A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An Integrated Assessment in the UK. Sustainability 2010, 2, 3747-3776.

AMA Style

Brandão M, Clift R, Canals LM, Basson L. A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An Integrated Assessment in the UK. Sustainability. 2010; 2(12):3747-3776.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brandão, Miguel; Clift, Roland; Canals, Llorenç Milà i; Basson, Lauren. 2010. "A Life-Cycle Approach to Characterising Environmental and Economic Impacts of Multifunctional Land-Use Systems: An Integrated Assessment in the UK." Sustainability 2, no. 12: 3747-3776.


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