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Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 47; doi:10.3390/su10010047

Scale Effects of Water Saving on Irrigation Efficiency: Case Study of a Rice-Based Groundwater Irrigation System on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

1
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
2
National Center for Efficient Irrigation Engineering and Technology Research-Beijing, Beijing 100048, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
4
Jiansanjiang Water Administration Bureau, Heilongjiang Land Reclamation Bureau, Fujing 156399, China
5
Qianjin Water Administration Bureau, Qianjin Farm, Heilongjiang Land Reclamation Bureau, Fujing 156331, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract

This research analyzed the scale effect of water saving in Bielahonghe (BLH) Basin, a rice-cultivating district on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Water budgets with different surface irrigation water supply ratios and water-saving measures were simulated with a semi-distributed water balance model. PFnws, representing the ratio of rice evapotranspiration to net water supply (the total amount of irrigation and precipitation minus the amount of water reused), was employed to assess the water use efficiency. Seven spatial scales (noted from S1 to S7), ranging from a single field (317.87 ha) to the whole basin (about 100,800 ha) were determined. PFnws values were quantified across scales and several water-saving measures, including water-saving irrigation regimes, canal lining, and a reduction of the surface water supply ratio (SWSR). The results indicated that PFnws increased with scale and could be calculated by a fitted power function (PFnws = 0.736Area0.033, R2 = 0.58). Furthermore, PFnws increased most prominently when the scale increased from S1 to S2. The water-saving irrigation regime (WSIR) had the most substantial water-saving effect (WSE) at S1. Specifically, PFnws improved by 21.2% at S1 when high-intensity WSIR was applied. Additionally, the WSE values of S3 and S5 were slightly higher than at other scales when the branch canal water delivery coefficient increased from 0.65 to 0.80 through canal lining. Furthermore, the PFnws at each scale varied with SWSR. Specifically, PFnws from S3 to S7 improved as SWSR decreased from 0.4 to 0.3 but remained approximately constant when SWSR decreased from 0.3 to 0. View Full-Text
Keywords: rice; water saving; irrigation efficiency; scale effect; percolation rice; water saving; irrigation efficiency; scale effect; percolation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, H.; Gao, Z.; Zeng, W.; Liu, J.; Tan, X.; Han, S.; Wang, S.; Zhao, Y.; Yu, C. Scale Effects of Water Saving on Irrigation Efficiency: Case Study of a Rice-Based Groundwater Irrigation System on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Sustainability 2018, 10, 47.

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