Sustainability 2009, 1(4), 1266-1287; doi:10.3390/su1041266

Visualizing Consolidation in the Global Seed Industry: 1996–2008

Received: 28 October 2009; Accepted: 4 December 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Agriculture)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The commercial seed industry has undergone tremendous consolidation in the last 40 years as transnational corporations entered this agricultural sector, and acquired or merged with competing firms. This trend is associated with impacts that constrain the opportunities for renewable agriculture, such as reductions in seed lines and a declining prevalence of seed saving. To better characterize the current structure of the industry, ownership changes from 1996 to 2008 are represented visually with information graphics. Since the commercialization of transgenic crops in the mid-1990s, the sale of seeds has become dominated globally by Monsanto, DuPont and Syngenta. In addition, the largest firms are increasingly networked through agreements to cross-license transgenic seed traits.
Keywords: seed industry; consolidation; concentration; oligopoly; information graphics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Howard, P.H. Visualizing Consolidation in the Global Seed Industry: 1996–2008. Sustainability 2009, 1, 1266-1287.

AMA Style

Howard PH. Visualizing Consolidation in the Global Seed Industry: 1996–2008. Sustainability. 2009; 1(4):1266-1287.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Howard, Philip H. 2009. "Visualizing Consolidation in the Global Seed Industry: 1996–2008." Sustainability 1, no. 4: 1266-1287.

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