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Sustainability of Ancient Water Supply Facilities in Jerusalem
Palestinian Institution for Cultural Landscape Studies, P.O. Box 54816 East Jerusalem, West Bank, Palestine
Institute of Environmental and Water Studies, Birzeit University, P.O. Box 14, Birzeit, West Bank, Palestine
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2009; in revised form: / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 25 November 2009
Abstract: This paper presents an overview on the sustainability of ancient water supply systems in Jerusalem from the Chalcolithic period (4500–3200 B.C.) until the present time. Archaeological evidences and landscape settings were applied utilizing all available and accessible literature relevant to ancient water resources management in Jerusalem. Irrigated agriculture was practiced for many centuries in this region, hence sustainable water supply facilities were erected, including well developed aqueducts, water harvesting pools and irrigation channels for water storage and landscaping purposes. To cope with seismic events, soil subsidence and water leakage, ancient water engineers and architects applied innovative construction methods for the erection of water pools, channels and aqueduct systems. Ancient water supply systems in Jerusalem are valuable treasures of past civilizations and crucial urban environmental facilities and their protection is consistent with sustainable development principles. Effective environmental assessment as a decision-making process for sustainable development can be applied to preserve threatened ancient water facilities from major development proposals and urban infrastructure projects in Jerusalem.
Keywords: ancient water systems; Jerusalem; landscape sitting; Palestine; sustainability
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MDPI and ACS Style
Barghouth, J.M.; Al-Sa`ed, R.M.Y. Sustainability of Ancient Water Supply Facilities in Jerusalem. Sustainability 2009, 1, 1106-1119.
Barghouth JM, Al-Sa`ed RMY. Sustainability of Ancient Water Supply Facilities in Jerusalem. Sustainability. 2009; 1(4):1106-1119.
Barghouth, Jamal M.; Al-Sa`ed, Rashed M. Y. 2009. "Sustainability of Ancient Water Supply Facilities in Jerusalem." Sustainability 1, no. 4: 1106-1119.