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Sustainability 2009, 1(3), 674-701; doi:10.3390/su1030674
Review

Life-Cycle Assessment and the Environmental Impact of Buildings: A Review

1
, 2,*  and 3
1 Heriot Watt University, School of the Built Environment, WA 4.02. EH14 4AS, Edinburgh, UK 2 Heriot Watt University, School of the Built Environment, EC 1.31. EH14 4AS, Edinburgh, UK 3 Heriot Watt University, School of the Built Environment, EC 2.29. EH14 4AS, Edinburgh, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2009 / Accepted: 15 September 2009 / Published: 18 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Sustainability and the Built Environment)
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Abstract

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of various management tools for evaluating environmental concerns. This paper reviews LCA from a buildings perspective. It highlights the need for its use within the building sector, and the importance of LCA as a decision making support tool. It discusses LCA methodologies and applications within the building sector, reviewing some of the life-cycle studies applied to buildings or building materials and component combinations within the last fifteen years in Europe and the United States. It highlights the problems of a lack of an internationally comparable and agreed data inventory and assessment methodology which hinder the application of LCA within the building industry. It identifies key areas for future research as (i) the whole process of construction, (ii) the relative weighting of different environmental impacts and (iii) applications in developing countries.
Keywords: life-cycle assessment; buildings; environment; sustainability life-cycle assessment; buildings; environment; sustainability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Khasreen, M.M.; Banfill, P.F.G.; Menzies, G.F. Life-Cycle Assessment and the Environmental Impact of Buildings: A Review. Sustainability 2009, 1, 674-701.

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