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Pharmaceutics 2017, 9(2), 13; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics9020013

Blend Hydrogel Microspheres of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Gelatin for the Controlled Release of 5-Fluorouracil

1
Department of Physics, College of science, engineering And Technology, University of South Africa, Pretoria 1709, South Africa
2
Department of Chemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, India
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Chemistry, SET’s College of Pharmacy, Dharwad 580 002, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Murali Mohan Yallapu
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology in Medical Therapeutic Formulations)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2914 KB, uploaded 27 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) was synthesized and blended with gelatin (GE) to prepare hydrogel microspheres by w/o emulsion cross-linking in the presence of glutaraldehyde (GA), which acted as a cross-linker. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was encapsulated to investigate its controlled release (CR) characteristics in acidic (pH 1.2) and alkaline (pH 7.4) buffer media. The microspheres which formed were spherical in nature, with smooth surfaces, as judged by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the carboxymethylation of CS and the chemical stability of 5-FU in the formulations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the physical state and molecular level dispersion of 5-FU. Equilibrium swelling of microspheres was performed in water, in order to understand the water uptake properties. The in vitro release of 5-FU was extended up to 12 h in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, revealing an encapsulation efficiency of 72%. The effects of blend composition, the extent of cross-linking, and initial drug loading on the in vitro release properties, were investigated. When analyzed through empirical equations, the release data suggested a non-Fickian transport mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: carboxymethyl chitosan; gelatin; controlled release; 5-FU; blend hydrogel microspheres carboxymethyl chitosan; gelatin; controlled release; 5-FU; blend hydrogel microspheres
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanth, V.R.; Kajjari, P.B.; Madalageri, P.M.; Ravindra, S.; Manjeshwar, L.S.; Aminabhavi, T.M. Blend Hydrogel Microspheres of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Gelatin for the Controlled Release of 5-Fluorouracil. Pharmaceutics 2017, 9, 13.

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