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Pharmaceutics 2016, 8(4), 31; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics8040031

Activated Carbon-Based System for the Disposal of Psychoactive Medications

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mercer University, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
2
Verde Technologies, 12701 Whitewater Drive, Minnetonka, MN 55343, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yvonne Perrie and Afzal R. Mohammed
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 7 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3581 KB, uploaded 7 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The misuse and improper disposal of psychoactive medications is a major safety and environmental concern. Hence, the proper disposal of these medications is critically important. A drug deactivation system which contains activated carbon offers a unique disposal method. In the present study, deactivation efficiency of this system was tested by using three model psychoactive drugs. HPLC validation was performed for each drug to ensure that the analytical method employed was suitable for its intended use. The method was found to be specific, accurate and precise for analyzing the drugs. The extent and rate of deactivation of the drugs was determined at several time points. After 28 days in the presence of activated carbon, the extent of leaching out of the drugs was evaluated. Deactivation started immediately after addition of the medications into the disposal pouches. Within 8 h, around 47%, 70% and 97% of diazepam, lorazepam and buprenorphine were adsorbed by the activated carbon, respectively. By the end of 28 days, over 99% of all drugs were deactivated. The desorption/leaching study showed that less than 1% of the active ingredients leached out from the activated carbon. Thus, this deactivation system can be successfully used for the disposal of psychoactive medications. View Full-Text
Keywords: lorazepam; diazepam; buprenorphine; activated carbon; deactivation; psychoactive; adsorption; desorption lorazepam; diazepam; buprenorphine; activated carbon; deactivation; psychoactive; adsorption; desorption
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Y.; Manian, M.; Fowler, W.; Korey, A.; Kumar Banga, A. Activated Carbon-Based System for the Disposal of Psychoactive Medications. Pharmaceutics 2016, 8, 31.

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