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Pharmaceutics 2015, 7(4), 503-522; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics7040503

Insertion Process of Ceramic Nanoporous Microneedles by Means of a Novel Mechanical Applicator Design

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Microsystems Group, Materials Technology Institute (MaTe) and ICMS Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2
MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
3
MyLife Technologies B.V., 7522 NH Enschede, The Netherlands
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polymer Technology Group and Materials Technology Institute (MaTe), Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
5
Department of Applied Physics, Molecular Biosensing for Medical Diagnostics and ICMS Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Diganta B. Das
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 7 November 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microneedle Patches: Developing Strategies for Delivery)
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Abstract

Arrays of microneedles (MNAs) are integrated in an out-of-plane fashion with a base plate and can serve as patches for the release of drugs and vaccines. We used soft-lithography and micromolding to manufacture ceramic nanoporous (np)MNAs. Failure modes of ceramic npMNAs are as yet poorly understood and the question remained: is our npMNA platform technology ready for microneedle (MN) assembly into patches? We investigated npMNAs by microindentation, yielding average crack fracture forces above the required insertion force for a single MN to penetrate human skin. We further developed a thumb pressure-actuated applicator-assisted npMNA insertion method, which enables anchoring of MNs in the skin by an adhesive in one handling step. Using a set of simple artificial skin models, we found a puncture efficiency of this insertion method a factor three times higher than by applying thumb pressure on the npMNA base plate directly. In addition, this new method facilitated zero MN-breakage due to a well-defined force distribution exerted onto the MNs and the closely surrounding area prior to bringing the adhesive into contact with the skin. Owing to the fact that such parameter space exists, we can conclude that npMNAs by soft lithography are a platform technology for MN assembly into a patch. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceramic nanoporous microneedles; soft lithography; micromolding; (trans)dermal drug delivery; microneedle patch; thumb pressure; applicator; skin insertion; fracture force ceramic nanoporous microneedles; soft lithography; micromolding; (trans)dermal drug delivery; microneedle patch; thumb pressure; applicator; skin insertion; fracture force
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartmann, X.H.M.; van der Linde, P.; Homburg, E.F.G.A.; van Breemen, L.C.A.; de Jong, A.M.; Luttge, R. Insertion Process of Ceramic Nanoporous Microneedles by Means of a Novel Mechanical Applicator Design. Pharmaceutics 2015, 7, 503-522.

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