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Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(1), 1-25; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics6010001

Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

Membrane Structure and Function Section, Basic Research Lab, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 469/Rm 216A, 1050 Boyles Street, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liposome Technologies)
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The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed.
Keywords: lipid-based nanoparticles; drug delivery; laser; cancer therapy; photodynamic therapy; liposomes; phototriggering; cancer nanomedicine lipid-based nanoparticles; drug delivery; laser; cancer therapy; photodynamic therapy; liposomes; phototriggering; cancer nanomedicine

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Puri, A. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives. Pharmaceutics 2014, 6, 1-25.

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