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Pharmaceutics 2013, 5(3), 371-384; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics5030371

Involvement of Carboxylesterase in Hydrolysis of Propranolol Prodrug during Permeation across Rat Skin

* ,
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2013 / Revised: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
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The use of a prodrug, a conjugate of an active drug with a lipophilic substituent, is a good way of increasing the cutaneous absorption of a drug. However, the activity of dermal hydrolases has rarely been investigated in humans, or experimental animals. In the present study, we focused on the identification of rat dermal esterases and the hydrolysis of a prodrug during permeation across rat skin. We found that carboxylesterase (CES), especially the rat CES1 isozyme, Hydrolase A, is expressed in rat skin and that the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acyl derivatives and caproyl-propranolol (PL) was 20-fold lower in the 9000g supernatant fraction of skin homogenate than in liver microsomes. A permeation study of caproyl-PL was performed in rat full-thickness and stripped skin using a flow-through diffusion cell. Caproyl-PL was easily partitioned into the stratum corneum and retained, not only in the stratum corneum, but also in viable epidermis and dermis. Caproyl-PL could barely be detected in the receptor fluid after application to either full-thickness or stripped skin. PL, derived from caproyl-PL, was, however, detected in receptor fluid after extensive hydrolysis of caproyl-PL in viable skin. Permeation of PL was markedly decreased under CES inhibition, indicating that the net flux of caproyl-PL is dependent on its conversion rate to PL.
Keywords: prodrug; skin permeation; hydrolysis; carboxylesterase prodrug; skin permeation; hydrolysis; carboxylesterase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Imai, T.; Takase, Y.; Iwase, H.; Hashimoto, M. Involvement of Carboxylesterase in Hydrolysis of Propranolol Prodrug during Permeation across Rat Skin. Pharmaceutics 2013, 5, 371-384.

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