Next Article in Journal
Transdermal Delivery of Adriamycin to Transplanted Ehrlich Ascites Tumor in Mice
Previous Article in Journal
The Potential Role of Nanotechnology in Therapeutic Approaches for Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Pharmaceutics 2013, 5(3), 371-384; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics5030371

Involvement of Carboxylesterase in Hydrolysis of Propranolol Prodrug during Permeation across Rat Skin

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 862-0973, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 April 2013 / Revised: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 1 July 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [605 KB, uploaded 1 July 2013]   |  

Abstract

The use of a prodrug, a conjugate of an active drug with a lipophilic substituent, is a good way of increasing the cutaneous absorption of a drug. However, the activity of dermal hydrolases has rarely been investigated in humans, or experimental animals. In the present study, we focused on the identification of rat dermal esterases and the hydrolysis of a prodrug during permeation across rat skin. We found that carboxylesterase (CES), especially the rat CES1 isozyme, Hydrolase A, is expressed in rat skin and that the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acyl derivatives and caproyl-propranolol (PL) was 20-fold lower in the 9000g supernatant fraction of skin homogenate than in liver microsomes. A permeation study of caproyl-PL was performed in rat full-thickness and stripped skin using a flow-through diffusion cell. Caproyl-PL was easily partitioned into the stratum corneum and retained, not only in the stratum corneum, but also in viable epidermis and dermis. Caproyl-PL could barely be detected in the receptor fluid after application to either full-thickness or stripped skin. PL, derived from caproyl-PL, was, however, detected in receptor fluid after extensive hydrolysis of caproyl-PL in viable skin. Permeation of PL was markedly decreased under CES inhibition, indicating that the net flux of caproyl-PL is dependent on its conversion rate to PL. View Full-Text
Keywords: prodrug; skin permeation; hydrolysis; carboxylesterase prodrug; skin permeation; hydrolysis; carboxylesterase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Imai, T.; Takase, Y.; Iwase, H.; Hashimoto, M. Involvement of Carboxylesterase in Hydrolysis of Propranolol Prodrug during Permeation across Rat Skin. Pharmaceutics 2013, 5, 371-384.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Pharmaceutics EISSN 1999-4923 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top