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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030153

Iontophoretic Transdermal Delivery of Human Growth Hormone (hGH) and the Combination Effect of a New Type Microneedle, Tappy Tok Tok®

1
College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeol-daero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 42601, Korea
2
U-BioMed, 149-6 Yulam-Ro, Dong-Gu, Daegu 41059, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract

Transdermal drug administration presents several advantages and it is therefore favorable as an alternative drug delivery route. However, transdermal delivery of biopharmaceutical drugs is made difficult by the skin barrier. Microneedle application and iontophoresis are strategies which can be used to overcome this barrier. Therefore, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was used as a model macromolecular drug and was transdermally delivered using microneedle application and iontophoresis. Methylene blue staining, stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging were used to characterize the microchannels produced. To optimize the iontophoresis protocol, the effects of molecular charge and current density on transdermal delivery were evaluated in an in vitro permeation study using excised rat skin tissues. Using the optimized iontophoresis protocol, the combination effects of iontophoretic delivery via microchannels were evaluated in three different experimental designs. The flux obtained with anodal iontophoresis in citrate buffer was approximately 10-fold higher that that with cathodal iontophoresis in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Flux also increased with current density in anodal iontophoresis. The combination of iontophoresis and microneedle application produced higher flux than single application. These results suggest that anodal iontophoresis with higher current density enhances the permeation of macromolecules through microchannels created by microneedles. In conclusion, the combination of iontophoresis and microneedles is a potential strategy for the enhancement of transdermal delivery of macromolecular drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: recombinant human growth hormone; transdermal delivery; microneedle; iontophoresis recombinant human growth hormone; transdermal delivery; microneedle; iontophoresis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Noh, G.; Keum, T.; Seo, J.-E.; Bashyal, S.; Eum, N.-S.; Kweon, M.J.; Lee, S.; Sohn, D.H.; Lee, S. Iontophoretic Transdermal Delivery of Human Growth Hormone (hGH) and the Combination Effect of a New Type Microneedle, Tappy Tok Tok®. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 153.

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