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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020048

Combined Effect of Anticancer Agents and Cytochrome C Decorated Hybrid Nanoparticles for Liver Cancer Therapy

1
Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Keele University, Keele ST5 5BG, UK
2
College of Pharmacy, Mosul University, Mosul 41002, Iraq
3
College of Dentistry, University of Basrah, Basrah 61004, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotechnology Advances in Cancer Treatment)
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Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma is an aggressive form of liver cancer that displays minimal symptoms until its late stages. Unfortunately, patient prognosis still remains poor with only 10% of patients surviving more than five years after diagnosis. Current chemotherapies alone are not offering efficient treatment, hence alternative therapeutic approaches are urgently required. In this work, we highlight the potential of combination of treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with existing chemotherapies in combination with pro-apoptotic factor cytochrome C. In order to allow cytochrome C to cross the cellular membrane and become internalized, it has been immobilised onto the surface of hybrid iron oxide-gold nanoparticles. This novel approach has been tested in vitro on HepG2, Huh-7D and SK-hep-1 cell lines in order to elucidate potential as a possible alternative therapy with greater efficacy. The data from our studies show consistently that combining treatment of clinically used anticancer agents (doxorubicin, paclitaxel, oxaliplatin, vinblastine and vincristine) significantly increases the levels of apoptosis within the cell lines, which leads to cellular death. Hence, this combined approach may hold promise for future treatment regimes. View Full-Text
Keywords: apoptosis; liver cancer; hybrid nanoparticle; cytochrome C; combination therapy apoptosis; liver cancer; hybrid nanoparticle; cytochrome C; combination therapy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Al-Shakarchi, W.; Alsuraifi, A.; Abed, M.; Abdullah, M.; Richardson, A.; Curtis, A.; Hoskins, C. Combined Effect of Anticancer Agents and Cytochrome C Decorated Hybrid Nanoparticles for Liver Cancer Therapy. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 48.

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