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Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020043

Prediction of Renal Acid Load in Adult Patients on Parenteral Nutrition

Clinical Nutrition Unit—Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, “Federico II” University Medical School, via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
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Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract

Metabolic acidosis and metabolic bone disease are frequent complications in patients on parenteral nutrition (PN). A common contributor to these complications could be a daily high renal acid load. This study aims to find a method for predicting the potential total acid load (PTAL) and the pH of the compounded parenteral nutrition mixtures. The pH and titratable acidity (TA) of fifty compounded mixtures were measured. The potential metabolic acid load (PMAL) was calculated by considering the amount of nutrients that are acid producers and consumers. The PTAL of the TPN mixtures was calculated by adding TA to PMAL. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop a predictive model for the TA and pH of the compounded mixtures. The predicted TA and pH values of the analyzed mixtures agreed with those measured (Passing-Bablok analysis). The PTAL was >50 mmol/day for 82% of the mixtures, >75 mmol/day for 40% of the mixtures, and >100 mmol/day for 22% of the mixtures. The prediction of the renal acid load in patients on long-term PN could allow more appropriate acid-base balancing. Moreover, predicting the pH of such mixtures could be useful to pharmacists to assess the stability and compatibility of the components in the compounded mixtures. View Full-Text
Keywords: parenteral nutrition; total renal acid load; metabolic renal acid load; pH; titratable acidity parenteral nutrition; total renal acid load; metabolic renal acid load; pH; titratable acidity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Iacone, R.; Scanzano, C.; D’Isanto, A.; Vitalone, A.; Frangipane, I.; D’Angeli, M.; Santarpia, L.; Contaldo, F. Prediction of Renal Acid Load in Adult Patients on Parenteral Nutrition. Pharmaceutics 2018, 10, 43.

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