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Forests 2018, 9(8), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9080484

Fungal Frequency and Mite Load Trends Interact with a Declining Mountain Pine Beetle Population

1
USDA/FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240W Prospect Rd., Ft. Collins, CO 80526, USA
2
USDA/FS Northern Research Station, 1 Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, WI 53726, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract

The mite and fungal biota associated with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk.) may not be stable throughout an irruptive event. In congeneric beetles, variations in the frequency of their associated organisms affect population trends and similar effects may occur in MPB. We studied fungi and mite trends in a declining irruptive MPB population as it attacked three different pine hosts in the Colorado Front Range. During the study, we found two new associates including one biologically relevant mite and one beneficial blue-stain fungus. Fungi hyperphoretic on mites were also documented. This included beneficial and potentially detrimental species to the MPB. The frequency of several organisms varied between some years or pine hosts but not within male or female beetles. A large increase of Trichouropoda sp. and T. ips mites trended inversely with the declining beetle population, while a decrease in the beneficial blue-stain fungi trended similarly to the declining beetle population. We discuss the interactions and potential effects of phoretic biota in relation to (1) the MPB associates’ population trends, (2) the MPB incursions into cooler areas, and (3) the redundancy of blue-stain fungi carried by the MPB holobiont. These findings increase our knowledge of the mechanisms that influence MPB populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: antagonist; fungal biota; fungivore; mutualist; phoretic mite antagonist; fungal biota; fungivore; mutualist; phoretic mite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mercado, J.E.; Ortiz-Santana, B.; Kay, S.L. Fungal Frequency and Mite Load Trends Interact with a Declining Mountain Pine Beetle Population. Forests 2018, 9, 484.

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