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Forests 2018, 9(7), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9070441

What Can We Learn from an Early Test on the Adaptation of Silver Fir Populations to Marginal Environments?

1
Department of Silviculture and Genetics, Forest Research Institute in Poland, Braci Leśnej 3, Sękocin Stary, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
2
Faculty of Applied Informatics and Mathematics, Department of Econometrics and Statistics, Biometry Division, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
3
Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Department Ecology and Biogeography, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Lwowska 1, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
4
Department of Forest Resources Management, Forest Research Institute in Poland, Braci Leśnej 3, Sękocin Stary, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Ecology and Management)
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Abstract

In order to determine the adaptive potential of silver fir in the southeast of Poland, the stability of the height of its five-year-old progeny was analyzed. The study was conducted in two different population groups in a total of four environments, including one ecologically marginal environment. The linear mixed model was used to evaluate the differentiation of populations in terms of height growth. The genotype and genotype-by-environment interaction biplot (GGE) were used to verify the stability of height. The climate of populations origin, in relation to actual fir distribution in Poland, was verified based on principal components analysis (PCA) of bioclimatic parameters. The highest total variability was explained by the genotype-environment interaction effect (GE) (54.50%), while the genotype effect (G) explained 41.27% and only 4.23% was explained by the site effect. The result of height growth variations revealed the Komańcza site as the most representative among study sites, while the Lesko site characterized the highest discriminating ability. The progeny occurring in climatic conditions most different from the average testing conditions showed a heterogeneous growth reaction, only adapting to the marginal environment, while the progeny of the second population in this region as well as the northernmost one was characterized by a mean but stable growth. The westernmost population revealed maladaptation. The assessment of the adaptability of silver fir depends on the broad spectrum of test conditions considering the ecologically marginal environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: genotype × environment interaction; phenotypic plasticity; multi-environment trials; bioclimatic indexes; maladaptation genotype × environment interaction; phenotypic plasticity; multi-environment trials; bioclimatic indexes; maladaptation
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Klisz, M.; Ukalski, K.; Ukalska, J.; Jastrzębowski, S.; Puchałka, R.; Przybylski, P.; Mionskowski, M.; Matras, J. What Can We Learn from an Early Test on the Adaptation of Silver Fir Populations to Marginal Environments? Forests 2018, 9, 441.

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