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Forests 2017, 8(4), 102; doi:10.3390/f8040102

An Ecologically Based System for Sustainable Agroforestry in Sub-Tropical and Tropical Forests

1
Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Longpan Road 159#, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 210037, China
2
Earth and Environmental Science, University of British Columbia (Okanagan), 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
3
Department of Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 2045-2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
4
Forestry College, Nanjing Forestry University, Longpan Road 159#, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 210037, China
5
Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg, Tennenbacher Straße 4#, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
6
College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Longpan Road 159#, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 210037, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management Strategies for Forest Ecosystem Services)
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Abstract

Forests in tropical and sub-tropical countries face severe pressures due to a combination of poverty and environment degradation. To be effective, measures to protect these forests must therefore consider both economic and ecological dimensions synergistically. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize our long-term work (1994–2015) on a Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) agroforestry system and demonstrate its potential for achieving both goals, and discuss its wider application in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The performance of various ecological, economic, and social indicators was compared among five Ginkgo agroforestry systems. Two additional indicators, Harmony Degree (HD) and Development Degree (DD), were also used to show the integrated performance of these indicators. Ginkgo-Wheat-Peanut (G+W+P) and Ginkgo-Rapeseed-Peanut (G+R+P) are the best systems when compared to pure and mixed Ginkgo plantations, or pure agricultural crops. Results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve both economic development and environmental protection through implementation of sustainable agroforestry systems in sub-tropical regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ginkgo biloba; indicators; forest products; Harmony Degree; Development Degree Ginkgo biloba; indicators; forest products; Harmony Degree; Development Degree
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, Y.; Cao, F.; Wei, X.; Welham, C.; Chen, L.; Pelz, D.R.; Yang, Q.; Liu, H. An Ecologically Based System for Sustainable Agroforestry in Sub-Tropical and Tropical Forests. Forests 2017, 8, 102.

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