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Forests 2017, 8(11), 411; doi:10.3390/f8110411

Dispersal Patterns of Pine Wilt Disease in the Early Stage of Its Invasion in South Korea

1
Warm Temperate and Subtropical Forest Research Center of National Institute of Forest Science, Jeju 63582, Korea
2
Division of Forest Insect Pests and Diseases, National Institute of Forest Science, Seoul 02455, Korea
3
Southern Forest Resources Research Center of National Institute of Forest Science, Jinju 52817, Korea
4
Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
5
Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Management of Pine Forests)
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Abstract

We characterized the dispersal patterns of pine wilt disease (PWD) in the early stage of its invasion in the South Korea, and estimated the influence of environmental factors on the dispersal of PWD. Data were obtained in 10 regions with at least five consecutive years of data for 10 years from 1994 to 2005. The dispersal patterns of PWD were categorized into four types: type 1 is a jumping type of dispersal, forming new patches; type 2 infestations are ones without any expansion of patch size; and types 3 and 4, respectively, show uni-directional or multi-directional dispersal outward from an existing patch. Dispersal patterns changed during different phases of the pathogen’s invasion history: type 1 was the most frequent in the early invasion stage. Annual dispersal distance showed regional variations. Human population density had a positive correlation with the dispersal distance of PWD, indicating that anthropogenic factors can contribute to the dispersal of PWD. Our results suggested that dispersal through jumping from areas occupied by PWD was the main dispersal route in the early stage of invasion and that after this phase, the existing colonies expanded and merged. These results supported the existence of stratified dispersal patterns of PWD. View Full-Text
Keywords: pine wood nematode; forest disease; spatial dispersal; patch; invasion history; invasive species; stratified dispersal pine wood nematode; forest disease; spatial dispersal; patch; invasion history; invasive species; stratified dispersal
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Choi, W.I.; Song, H.J.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, D.-S.; Lee, C.-Y.; Nam, Y.; Kim, J.-B.; Park, Y.-S. Dispersal Patterns of Pine Wilt Disease in the Early Stage of Its Invasion in South Korea. Forests 2017, 8, 411.

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