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Forests 2016, 7(9), 207; doi:10.3390/f7090207

Single Tree Stem Profile Detection Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data, Flatness Saliency Features and Curvature Properties

Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU Skogsmarksgränd, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden
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Academic Editors: Juha Hyyppä, Xinlian Liang and Eetu Puttonen
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 16 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Ground Observations through Terrestrial Point Clouds)
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Abstract

A method for automatic stem detection and stem profile estimation based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was validated. The root-mean-square error was approximately 1 cm for stem diameter estimations. The method contains a new way of extracting the flatness saliency feature using the centroid of a subset of a point cloud within a voxel cell that approximates the point by point calculations. The loss of accuracy is outweighed by a much higher computational speed, making it possible to cover large datasets. The algorithm introduces a new way to connect surface patches belonging to a stem and investigates if they belong to curved surfaces. Thereby, cylindrical objects, like stems, are found in the pre-filtering stage. The algorithm uses a new cylinder fitting method that estimates the axis direction by transforming the TLS points into a radial-angular coordinate system and evaluates the deviations by a moving window convex hull algorithm. Once the axis direction is found, the cylinder center is chosen as the position with the smallest radial deviations. The cylinder fitting method works on a point cloud in both the single-scan setup, as well as a multiple scan setup of a TLS system. View Full-Text
Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; single tree detection; stem profile; precision forestry terrestrial laser scanning; single tree detection; stem profile; precision forestry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Olofsson, K.; Holmgren, J. Single Tree Stem Profile Detection Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner Data, Flatness Saliency Features and Curvature Properties. Forests 2016, 7, 207.

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