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Forests 2016, 7(5), 95; doi:10.3390/f7050095

Metabarcoding of Bacteria Associated with the Acute Oak Decline Syndrome in England

1
Fera, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
2
Department of Biology, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK
3
Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jan Stenlid, Jonas Oliva and Audrius Menkis
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
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Abstract

Outbreaks of acute oak decline (AOD) have been documented in England from 2006. Both species of native oaks (Quercus robur and Quercus petraea) are affected. To complement isolation efforts for identification of putative causative biotic agents and increase our understanding of bacteria associated with oak tissue, five sites in England were chosen for this study. Samples of outer bark, inner bark, sapwood and heartwood were taken from healthy oak and trees with symptoms at varying stages of the syndrome. Furthermore, larval galleries attributed to infestation with Agrilus biguttatus were included. After DNA extraction and amplification of the V3–V5 fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes by pyrosequencing, the dataset was analyzed to identify patterns in bacterial communities in oak tissue samples with and without AOD symptoms at each site. The composition of bacterial communities differed greatly according to the site from which the samples were obtained. Within each site, the composition of the bacteria associated with symptomatic tissue varied between advanced stages of the syndrome and healthy tissue. Key players in healthy and symptomatic tissue were identified and included members of the Gammaproteobacteria related to Pseudomonas sp. or Brenneria goodwinii and members of the Firmicutes. View Full-Text
Keywords: oak associated microbiome; pyrosequencing; 16S rRNA gene; acute oak decline; endosphere; native oak oak associated microbiome; pyrosequencing; 16S rRNA gene; acute oak decline; endosphere; native oak
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sapp, M.; Lewis, E.; Moss, S.; Barrett, B.; Kirk, S.; Elphinstone, J.G.; Denman, S. Metabarcoding of Bacteria Associated with the Acute Oak Decline Syndrome in England. Forests 2016, 7, 95.

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