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Forests 2016, 7(1), 14; doi:10.3390/f7010014

Assessments of Population Structure, Diversity, and Phylogeography of the Swiss Needle Cast Fungus (Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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Academic Editors: Jan Stenlid, Jonas Oliva and Audrius Menkis
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
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Abstract

Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a foliar disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rohde) Petrak. This fungus is endemic to western North America, where it has historically had little impact in native forests. However, increasing disease severity in western Oregon since the 1990s has prompted renewed interest in P. gaeumannii and SNC. For this study, we analyze multilocus microsatellite genotypes from 482 single-spore isolates from 68 trees across 14 sites in the western Coast Range of Oregon and southwestern Washington. This study assesses genotypic variation and genetic structure at several levels of population hierarchy. Despite the observation that most of the genetic variation occurred within subpopulations, our analyses detected significant differentiation at all hierarchical levels. Clustering among the 482 isolates based on genetic distance clearly supports the existence of two previously described cryptic lineages of P. gaeumannii in the western United States. The two lineages occur in varying proportions along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in western Oregon and Washington, suggesting a relationship between climate and phylogeography. Sites near Tillamook, Oregon, where SNC is most severe, consist of sympatric subpopulations in which the two lineages comprise roughly equal proportions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Douglas-fir; forest pathology; population genetics; microsatellites; mycology Douglas-fir; forest pathology; population genetics; microsatellites; mycology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bennett, P.; Stone, J. Assessments of Population Structure, Diversity, and Phylogeography of the Swiss Needle Cast Fungus (Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Forests 2016, 7, 14.

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