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Forests 2015, 6(4), 1031-1060; doi:10.3390/f6041031

Taking Stock of Carbon Rights in REDD+ Candidate Countries: Concept Meets Reality

Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre, Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, Senckenbergallee 25, 60325 Frankfurt a.M., Germany
Center for International Forestry Research, Avenida La Molina 1895, La Molina, Lima 12, Peru
Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Presidente Vargas, 417, 6° a 9° andares, CEP: 20071-003, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Center for International Forestry Research.17A Nguyen Khang Street, Hanoi 10000, Vietnam
Center for International Forestry Research, Jalan CIFOR, Situ Gede, Bogor 16115, Indonesia
Center for International Forestry Research. P.O. Box: 2008, Yaoundé, Cameroon
Center for International Forestry Research. United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, P.O. Box 30677–00100, Nairobi, Kenya
Department of Political Science, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francis E. Putz and Eric J. Jokela
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 23 March 2015 / Published: 8 April 2015
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In the discourses on who should benefit from national REDD+ implementation, rights-based approaches are prominent across various countries. Options on how to create viable property rights arrangements are currently being debated by scholars, policy makers and practitioners alike. Many REDD+ advocates argue that assigning carbon rights represents a solution to insecure individual and community property rights. But carbon rights, i.e., the bundle of legal rights to carbon sequestered in biomass, present their own set of theoretical and practical challenges. We assess the status and approaches chosen in emerging carbon-rights legislations in five REDD+ countries based on a literature review and country expert knowledge: Peru, Brazil, Cameroon, Vietnam and Indonesia. We find that most countries assessed have not yet made final decisions as to the type of benefit sharing mechanisms they intend to implement and that there is a lack of clarity about who owns rights to carbon as a property and who is entitled to receive benefits. However, there is a trend of linking carbon rights to land rights. As such, the technical and also political challenges that land tenure clarification has faced over the past decades will still need to be addressed in the context of carbon rights. View Full-Text
Keywords: benefit sharing; carbon rights; land tenure; national implementation; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation benefit sharing; carbon rights; land tenure; national implementation; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Loft, L.; Ravikumar, A.; Gebara, M.F.; Pham, T.T.; Resosudarmo, I.A.P.; Assembe, S.; Tovar, J.G.; Mwangi, E.; Andersson, K. Taking Stock of Carbon Rights in REDD+ Candidate Countries: Concept Meets Reality. Forests 2015, 6, 1031-1060.

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