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Forests 2015, 6(2), 280-292; doi:10.3390/f6020280

Changes in a Primary Resistance Parameter of Lodgepole Pine to Bark Beetle Attack One Year Following Fertilization and Thinning

1
Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2339, USA
2
Kimberley Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, Kimberley, ID 83341-5076, USA
3
Department of Forest, Rangeland and Fire Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1133, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Beat Wermelinger
Received: 25 September 2014 / Revised: 9 December 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2015 / Published: 26 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Bark Beetles and Forests)
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Abstract

Many of the forest soils in the Intermountain West are deficient in several nutrients, including nitrogen (N), potassium (K), sulfur (S) and boron (B) and these deficiencies may impact tree resistance to insect attack. Two potential techniques for manipulating tree resistance are fertilization and thinning. We examined fertilization (both alone and in conjunction with stand thinning). Conifer resistance to bark beetles involves a three-step response, the first stage of which is resin flow. Rapid resin flow can prevent the colonization of bark beetles within a tree. Fertilization with low levels of N resulted in an increase in resin flow while high levels of N did not significantly increase resin flow in treated trees. Thinning did not result in higher concentrations of foliar K or B but did result in higher concentrations of foliar N and S. The highest concentrations of foliar N and S consistently occurred in the trees from thinned treatments, regardless of fertilization. There was a negative correlation between tree growth and resin flow one year following treatments. Increasing available nutrient levels to trees (either through fertilization or stand density management) may result in modified resistance parameters that must be considered when making management decisions. View Full-Text
Keywords: mountain pine beetle; bark beetle; tree defense; resin flow; nitrogen mountain pine beetle; bark beetle; tree defense; resin flow; nitrogen
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cook, S.P.; Carroll, A.D.; Kimsey, M.; Shaw, T.M. Changes in a Primary Resistance Parameter of Lodgepole Pine to Bark Beetle Attack One Year Following Fertilization and Thinning. Forests 2015, 6, 280-292.

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