Next Article in Journal
Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil
Previous Article in Journal
Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2014, 5(9), 2163-2211; doi:10.3390/f5092163

Legal Harvesting, Sustainable Sourcing and Cascaded Use of Wood for Bioenergy: Their Coverage through Existing Certification Frameworks for Sustainable Forest Management

1
Copernicus institute (Utrecht University), Heidelberglaan 2, Utrecht NL-3584 CS, The Netherlands
2
Jinke van Dam Consultancy, van Beesdelaan 25, Bunnik NL-3981 EC, The Netherlands
3
Control Union Certifications, Meeuwenlaan 4-6, Zwolle NL-8011 BZ, The Netherlands
4
UK Forestry Commission, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham Surrey GU10 4LH, UK
5
Energy and sustainability research institute (Groningen University), Nijenborg 4, Groningen NL-9747 AC, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [565 KB, uploaded 22 September 2014]   |  

Abstract

The first objective of this paper was to provide an inventory of developments of certification schemes for sustainable biomass production, following recent EU legislation (both formalized and under development). One main pillar is the EU Timber Regulation for legal harvesting; a second one is the EU’s 2010 recommendations for sustainable woody biomass sourcing for energy; the third one is the EU Waste Directive. The second objective was to benchmark the coverage of this (draft) legislation, when wood product certificates for sustainable forest management (SFM) are used as proof of the related legislative requirements. We studied North America, as it is a major biomass supplier to the EU-28. Together with existing forest legislation in the US and Canada, SFM certificates are actively used to cover the EU’s (draft) legislation. However, North American forests are only partially certified with fibers coming from certified forests; these are referred to as forest management (FM) fibers. Other certified fibers should come from complementary risk assessments downstream in the supply chain (risk based fibers). Our benchmark concludes that: (a) FM fiber certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) international standards show the highest level of coverage with EU’s (draft) legislation; (b) There is insufficient coverage for risk based fibers by FSC Controlled Wood (FSC-CW), PEFC Due Diligence (PEFC-DD), or SFI-fiber sourcing (SFI-FS). Other weaknesses identified for elaboration are: (c) Alignment in definitions are needed, such as for primary forest, high carbon stock, and wood waste (cascading); (d) Imperfect mass balance (fiber check downstream) needs to be solved, as non-certified fiber flows are inadequately monitored; (e) Add-on of a GHG calculation tool is needed, as GHG life cycle reporting is not covered by any of the SFM frameworks. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable forest management (SFM); certification; chain-of-custody (COC); solid biomass; bio-energy; North America; Europe; Renewable Energy Directive (RED); EU Timber Regulation (EUTR); Waste Directive sustainable forest management (SFM); certification; chain-of-custody (COC); solid biomass; bio-energy; North America; Europe; Renewable Energy Directive (RED); EU Timber Regulation (EUTR); Waste Directive
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sikkema, R.; Junginger, M.; van Dam, J.; Stegeman, G.; Durrant, D.; Faaij, A. Legal Harvesting, Sustainable Sourcing and Cascaded Use of Wood for Bioenergy: Their Coverage through Existing Certification Frameworks for Sustainable Forest Management. Forests 2014, 5, 2163-2211.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top