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Forests 2014, 5(8), 2016-2036; doi:10.3390/f5082016
Article

Integration of Adaptation and Mitigation in Climate Change and Forest Policies in Indonesia and Vietnam

1,* , 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
 and 4
1 Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), No. 17A, Nguyen Khang street, Cau Giay district, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam 2 Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Jalan CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang, Bogor (Barat) 16115, Indonesia 3 Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), Avenue Agropolis, Montpellier 34398, France 4 Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Jalan CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang, Bogor (Barat) 16115, Indonesia 5 University of Leeds, LS2 9JT Leeds, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 25 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
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Abstract

Forests play a major role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation, but few policies, if any, integrate these two aspects. Using Indonesia and Vietnam as case studies, we identify challenges at the national level but opportunities at the local level. Although both countries demonstrate political commitment to integrating adaptation and mitigation in their development plans, guidelines for policy and planning treat the two approaches separately. The main challenges identified are lack of knowledge, lack of political will, lack of financial incentives, and fragmentation of mandates and tasks of different government agencies. In contrast, at the local level, integration of mitigation and adaptation is facilitated by subnational autonomy, where mitigation projects might have adaptation co-benefits, and vice versa. Our results also show that many actors have a dual mandate that could bridge adaptation and mitigation if appropriate political and financial incentives are put in place. Successful integration of mitigation and adaptation policies would not only remove contradictions between policies, but also encourage governments that are designing domestic policies to exploit the potential for positive spillovers and realize the benefits of both approaches.
Keywords: adaptation; mitigation; synthesis; Indonesia; Vietnam adaptation; mitigation; synthesis; Indonesia; Vietnam
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Thuy, P.T.; Moeliono, M.; Locatelli, B.; Brockhaus, M.; Gregorio, M.D.; Mardiah, S. Integration of Adaptation and Mitigation in Climate Change and Forest Policies in Indonesia and Vietnam. Forests 2014, 5, 2016-2036.

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