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Forests 2014, 5(3), 439-454; doi:10.3390/f5030439
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An Overview of Integrated Management of Leaf-Cutting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Brazilian Forest Plantations

1
, 2,* , 1
, 1
, 3
 and 2
1 Laboratório de Entomologia Florestal, Universidade Federal de Lavras, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil 2 Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil 3 Departamento de Ciências Florestais, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000, São Cristóvão, Sergipe State, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2013 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
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Abstract

Brazilian forest producers have developed integrated management programs to increase the effectiveness of the control of leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex. These measures reduced the costs and quantity of insecticides used in the plantations. Such integrated management programs are based on monitoring the ant nests, as well as the need and timing of the control methods. Chemical control employing baits is the most commonly used method, however, biological, mechanical and cultural control methods, besides plant resistance, can reduce the quantity of chemicals applied in the plantations.
Keywords: Atta; Acromyrmex; control method; integrated pest management; monitoring Atta; Acromyrmex; control method; integrated pest management; monitoring
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zanetti, R.; Zanuncio, J.C.; Santos, J.C.; da Silva, W.L.P.; Ribeiro, G.T.; Lemes, P.G. An Overview of Integrated Management of Leaf-Cutting Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Brazilian Forest Plantations. Forests 2014, 5, 439-454.

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