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Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, The University of Tennessee, 2505 E.J. Chapman Drive, 370 Plant Biotechnology Building, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
USDA Forest Service Forest Health Protection, 200. W.T. Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28806, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2013; in revised form: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Abstract: Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid) soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.
Keywords: black walnut; imidacloprid; dinotefuran; chemical concentration; thousand cankers disease
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MDPI and ACS Style
Nix, K.; Lambdin, P.; Grant, J.; Coots, C.; Merten, P. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra. Forests 2013, 4, 887-897.
Nix K, Lambdin P, Grant J, Coots C, Merten P. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra. Forests. 2013; 4(4):887-897.
Nix, Katheryne; Lambdin, Paris; Grant, Jerome; Coots, Carla; Merten, Paul. 2013. "Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra." Forests 4, no. 4: 887-897.