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Forests 2013, 4(4), 887-897; doi:10.3390/f4040887

Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra

1
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, The University of Tennessee, 2505 E.J. Chapman Drive, 370 Plant Biotechnology Building, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
2
USDA Forest Service Forest Health Protection, 200. W.T. Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28806, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2013 / Revised: 30 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
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Abstract

Black walnut, a valuable economic and environmentally important species, is threatened by thousand cankers disease. Systemic imidacloprid and dinotefuran applications were made to mature black walnut trees to evaluate their translocation and concentration levels in various tissue types including leaf, twig, trunk core, nutmeat, and walnut husk. The metabolism of imidacloprid in plants produces a metabolite, olefin-imidacloprid, which has been documented to have insecticidal properties in other systems. Trunk CoreTect (imidacloprid) soil pellets and a trunk spray of dinotefuran were applied to mature black walnuts in spring 2011. Imidacloprid concentrations were detected in both the lower and upper strata in all tissue types tested and progressively increased through month 12 post-treatment in twig and leaf tissue. Olefin-imidacloprid was detected in the nutmeat and walnut husk. Dinotefuran was only detected in the first sampling period and was found in low concentration levels in leaf and twig tissue types, and was not detected in the trunk, nutmeat or the walnut husk.
Keywords: black walnut; imidacloprid; dinotefuran; chemical concentration; thousand cankers disease black walnut; imidacloprid; dinotefuran; chemical concentration; thousand cankers disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nix, K.; Lambdin, P.; Grant, J.; Coots, C.; Merten, P. Concentration Levels of Imidacloprid and Dinotefuran in Five Tissue Types of Black Walnut, Juglans nigra. Forests 2013, 4, 887-897.

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