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Forests 2013, 4(2), 500-516; doi:10.3390/f4020500
Article

Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada

1,* , 1,2
 and 1
Received: 23 April 2013; in revised form: 6 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forest Restoration and Regeneration)
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Abstract: Direct tree seeding is potentially an economical technique for restoring forests on abandoned fields. However, the success of tree establishment depends on many factors related to species and seed characteristics, environmental conditions, competition and predation. We compared seedling emergence, survival and growth of six tree species of different seed sizes in a forest restoration project of abandoned fields. Species were seeded in plots with and without herbaceous vegetation and with and without protection from bird and mammal predation. Yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) did not emerge in all treatments, paper birch (Betula papyrifera) and tamarack (Larix laricina) had a seedling emergence rate lower than 1%, and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) had a low overall emergence rate of 6%. Seedling emergence reached 57% for northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and 34% for red pine (Pinus resinosa), but survival of oak after one year was much higher (92%) than pine seedlings (16%). Overall, protection from birds and mammals and elimination of the herbaceous vegetation cover had no detectable effects on seedling emergence, survival and height. Nonetheless, red oak seedlings growing in the presence of vegetation had a smaller diameter and shoot biomass and a larger specific leaf area. We conclude that only large seeded species, such as oak, should be used for forest restoration of abandoned fields by direct seeding in our region.
Keywords: tree; direct seeding; seedling emergence; survival; growth; seed size; competition; predation tree; direct seeding; seedling emergence; survival; growth; seed size; competition; predation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

St-Denis, A.; Messier, C.; Kneeshaw, D. Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada. Forests 2013, 4, 500-516.

AMA Style

St-Denis A, Messier C, Kneeshaw D. Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada. Forests. 2013; 4(2):500-516.

Chicago/Turabian Style

St-Denis, Annick; Messier, Christian; Kneeshaw, Daniel. 2013. "Seed Size, the Only Factor Positively Affecting Direct Seeding Success in an Abandoned Field in Quebec, Canada." Forests 4, no. 2: 500-516.


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