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Materials 2016, 9(6), 456; doi:10.3390/ma9060456

Mechanical Characterization and Constitutive Modeling of Human Trachea: Age and Gender Dependency

1
Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, 424 Hafez Ave, Tehran 1587-4413, Iran
2
Chemistry Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 1587-4413, Iran
3
Tracheal Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1956944413, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Amir A. Zadpoor
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Tissue Biomechanics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2125 KB, uploaded 8 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Tracheal disorders can usually reduce the free lumen diameter or wall stiffness, and hence limit airflow. Trachea tissue engineering seems a promising treatment for such disorders. The required mechanical compatibility of the prepared scaffold with native trachea necessitates investigation of the mechanical behavior of the human trachea. This study aimed at mechanical characterization of human tracheas and comparing the results based on age and gender. After isolating 30 human tracheas, samples of tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue were subjected to uniaxial tension to obtain force-displacement curves and calculate stress-stretch data. Among several models, the Yeoh and Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic functions were best able to describe hyperelastic behavior of all three tracheal components. The mean value of the elastic modulus of human tracheal cartilage was calculated to be 16.92 ± 8.76 MPa. An overall tracheal stiffening with age was observed, with the most considerable difference in the case of cartilage. Consistently, we noticed some histological alterations in cartilage and connective tissue with aging, which may play a role in age-related tracheal stiffening. No considerable effect of gender on the mechanical behavior of tracheal components was observed. The results of this study can be applied in the design and fabrication of trachea tissue engineering scaffolds. View Full-Text
Keywords: trachea constituents; mechanical behavior; hyperelastic model; aging; cartilage; connective tissue; smooth muscle trachea constituents; mechanical behavior; hyperelastic model; aging; cartilage; connective tissue; smooth muscle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Safshekan, F.; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, M.; Abdouss, M.; Shadmehr, M.B. Mechanical Characterization and Constitutive Modeling of Human Trachea: Age and Gender Dependency. Materials 2016, 9, 456.

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