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Materials 2016, 9(5), 376; doi:10.3390/ma9050376

Surface Functionalization of Polyethersulfone Membrane with Quaternary Ammonium Salts for Contact-Active Antibacterial and Anti-Biofouling Properties

1
The Institute of Medical Equipment, Academy of Military Medical Science, Tianjin 300161, China
2
Physics and Chemical Department, Tianjin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Tianjin 300170, China
3
Tianjin Key Laboratory for Prevention and Control of Occupational and Environmental Hazard, Logistics College of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces, Tianjin 300162, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nadia Jessel
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 5 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
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Abstract

Biofilm is a significant cause for membrane fouling. Antibacterial-coated surfaces can inhibit biofilm formation by killing bacteria. In this study, polyethersulfone (PES) microfiltration membrane was photografted by four antibiotic quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) separately, which were synthesized from dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) by quaternization with butyl bromide (BB), octyl bromide (OB), dodecyl bromide (DB), or hexadecyl bromide (HB). XPS, ATR-FTIR, and SEM were used to confirm the surfaces’ composition and morphology. After modification, the pores on PES-g-DMAEMA-BB and PES-g-DMAEMA-OB were blocked, while PES-g-DMAEMA-DB and PES-g-DMAEMA-HB were retained. We supposed that DMAEMA-BB and DMAEMA-OB aggregated on the membrane surface due to the activities of intermolecular or intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Bacteria testing found the antibacterial activities of the membranes increased with the length of the substituted alkyl chain. Correspondingly, little bacteria were observed on PES-g-DMAEMA-DB and PES-g-DMAEMA-HB by SEM. The antifouling properties were investigated by filtration of a solution of Escherichia coli. Compared with the initial membrane, PES-g-DMAEMA-DB and PES-g-DMAEMA-HB showed excellent anti-biofouling performance with higher relative flux recovery (RFR) of 88.3% and 92.7%, respectively. Thus, surface functionalization of the PES membrane with QACs can prevent bacteria adhesion and improve the anti-biofouling activity by the contact-active antibacterial property. View Full-Text
Keywords: quaternary ammonium salts; photografting; polyethersulfone membrane; contact-active antibacterial surface; anti-biofouling quaternary ammonium salts; photografting; polyethersulfone membrane; contact-active antibacterial surface; anti-biofouling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, X.; Lin, X.; Zhao, H.; Chen, Z.; Yang, J.; Li, F.; Liu, C.; Tian, F. Surface Functionalization of Polyethersulfone Membrane with Quaternary Ammonium Salts for Contact-Active Antibacterial and Anti-Biofouling Properties. Materials 2016, 9, 376.

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