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Materials 2016, 9(5), 318; doi:10.3390/ma9050318

SEM, EDS and XPS Analysis of the Coatings Obtained on Titanium after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Electrolytes Containing Copper Nitrate

1
Division of Surface Electrochemistry & Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Racławicka 15-17, PL 75-620 Koszalin, Poland
2
Institute of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Geology, ŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
3
Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Realfagbygget E3-124 Høgskoleringen 5, NO 7491 Trondheim, Norway
4
Institute of Physics, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
5
Institute of Clean Technologies for Mining and Utilization of Raw Materials for Energy Use, Faculty of Mining and Geology, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
6
Regional Materials Science and Technology Centre, Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB—Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew J. Ruys
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2608 KB, uploaded 27 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

In the paper, the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results of the surface layer formed on pure titanium after plasma electrolytic oxidation (micro arc oxidation) at the voltage of 450 V are shown. As an electrolyte, the mixture of copper nitrate Cu(NO3)2 (10–600 g/L) in concentrated phosphoric acid H3PO4 (98 g/mol) was used. The thickness of the obtained porous surface layer equals about 10 μm, and it consists mainly of titanium phosphates and oxygen with embedded copper ions as a bactericidal agent. The maximum percent of copper in the PEO surface layer was equal to 12.2 ± 0.7 wt % (7.6 ± 0.5 at %), which is the best result that the authors obtained. The top surface layer of all obtained plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings consisted most likely mainly of Ti3(PO4)4∙nH3PO4 and Cu3(PO4)2∙nH3PO4 with a small addition of CuP2, CuO and Cu2O. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium; plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO); micro arc oxidation (MAO); copper nitrate; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS); X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) titanium; plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO); micro arc oxidation (MAO); copper nitrate; Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS); X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rokosz, K.; Hryniewicz, T.; Matýsek, D.; Raaen, S.; Valíček, J.; Dudek, Ł.; Harničárová, M. SEM, EDS and XPS Analysis of the Coatings Obtained on Titanium after Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in Electrolytes Containing Copper Nitrate. Materials 2016, 9, 318.

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