Next Article in Journal
Performance of High Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting of Ti6Al4V
Previous Article in Journal
An Investigation of Sintering Parameters on Titanium Powder for Electron Beam Melting Processing Optimization
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Materials 2016, 9(12), 976; doi:10.3390/ma9120976

In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration

1
Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
2
Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan
3
Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas 29050, Mexico
4
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576, Singapore
5
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
6
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jung Ho Je
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3945 KB, uploaded 1 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S) is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h) and acceleration (~4 h) periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period after 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydration; tricalcium silicate; C–S–H; kinetics; spectromicroscopy hydration; tricalcium silicate; C–S–H; kinetics; spectromicroscopy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bae, S.; Kanematsu, M.; Hernández-Cruz, D.; Moon, J.; Kilcoyne, D.; Monteiro, P.J.M. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration. Materials 2016, 9, 976.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top