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Materials 2016, 9(1), 21; doi:10.3390/ma9010021

Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge

1
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior S/N, A.P, México D.F. 70-360, Mexico
2
Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain
3
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3. Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steven Suib
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5158 KB, uploaded 2 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

The search for electroceramic materials with enhanced ferro-pyro-piezoelectric properties and revealing the perovskite type structure has been the objective of a significant number of manuscripts reported in the literature. This has been usually carried out by proposing the synthesis and processing of new compounds and solid solution series. In this work, several methods to obtain ferro-pyro-piezoelectric families of materials featuring the well-known ABO3 perovskite structure (or related) such as BaTiO3, Ba1–xCaxTi1–yZryO3, (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 and their solid solutions with different cations either in the A or B positions, are presented. For this kind of materials, the challenge for obtaining a single phase compound with a specific grain size and morphology and, most importantly, with the adequate stoichiometry, will also be discussed. The results reviewed herein will be discussed in terms of the tendency of working with softer conditions, i.e., lower temperature and shorter reaction times, also referred to as soft-chemistry. View Full-Text
Keywords: synthesis; sintering; lead-free; BT; BCZT; BNT; KNN; ceramics; ferroelectricity; piezoelectricity synthesis; sintering; lead-free; BT; BCZT; BNT; KNN; ceramics; ferroelectricity; piezoelectricity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Villafuerte-Castrejón, M.E.; Morán, E.; Reyes-Montero, A.; Vivar-Ocampo, R.; Peña-Jiménez, J.-A.; Rea-López, S.-O.; Pardo, L. Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge. Materials 2016, 9, 21.

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