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Materials 2015, 8(9), 6018-6028; doi:10.3390/ma8095288

Characterization of Human Gingival Fibroblasts on Zirconia Surfaces Containing Niobium Oxide

Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749,
Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749,
Department of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, BK21 Program, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749, Korea
Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Korea
Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dusan Losic
Received: 11 May 2015 / Revised: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 10 September 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1602 KB, uploaded 10 September 2015]   |  


It was indicated that tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (TZP) containing yttria (Y2O3) and niobium oxide (Nb2O5) ((Y,Nb)-TZP) could be an adequate dental material to be used at esthetically important sites. The (Y,Nb)-TZP was also proved to possess its osteogenic potential comparable with those conventional dental implant material, titanium (Ti). The objective of the current study was to characterize cellular response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to smooth and rough surfaces of the (Y,Nb)-TZP disc, which were obtained by polishing and sandblasting, respectively. Various microscopic, biochemical, and molecular techniques were used to investigate the disc surfaces and cellular responses for the experimental (Y,Nb)-TZP and the comparing Ti groups. Sandblasted rough (Y,Nb)-TZP (Zir-R) discs had the highest surface roughness. HGFs cultured on polished (Y,Nb)-TZP (Zir) showed a rounded cell morphology and light spreading at 6 h after seeding and its proliferation rate significantly increased during seven days of culture compared to other surfaces. The mRNA expressions of type I collagen, integrin α2 and β1 were significantly stimulated for the Zir group at 24 h after seeding. The current findings, combined with the previous results, indicate that (Y,Nb)-TZP provides appropriate surface condition for osseointegration at the fixture level and for peri-implant mucosal sealing at the abutment level producing a suitable candidate for dental implantation with an expected favorable clinical outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental implant; zirconia; niobium; human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs); mucosal sealing dental implant; zirconia; niobium; human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs); mucosal sealing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cho, Y.-D.; Shin, J.-C.; Yoon, H.-I.; Ku, Y.; Ryoo, H.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, D.-G.; Han, J.-S. Characterization of Human Gingival Fibroblasts on Zirconia Surfaces Containing Niobium Oxide. Materials 2015, 8, 6018-6028.

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