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Materials 2015, 8(7), 4421-4456; doi:10.3390/ma8074421

Developments in PDT Sensitizers for Increased Selectivity and Singlet Oxygen Production

Fiber & Polymer Science Program, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maryam Tabrizian
Received: 28 January 2015 / Revised: 29 June 2015 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015

Abstract

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a minimally-invasive procedure that has been clinically approved for treating certain types of cancers. This procedure takes advantage of the cytotoxic activity of singlet oxygen (1O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by visible and NIR light irradiation of dye sensitizers following their accumulation in malignant cells. The main two concerns associated with certain clinically-used PDT sensitizers that have been influencing research in this arena are low selectivity toward malignant cells and low levels of 1O2 production in aqueous media. Solving the selectivity issue would compensate for photosensitizer concerns such as dark toxicity and aggregation in aqueous media. One main approach to enhancing dye selectivity involves taking advantage of key methods used in pharmaceutical drug delivery. This approach lies at the heart of the recent developments in PDT research and is a point of emphasis in the present review. Of particular interest has been the development of polymeric micelles as nanoparticles for delivering hydrophobic (lipophilic) and amphiphilic photosensitizers to the target cells. This review also covers methods employed to increase 1O2 production efficiency, including the design of two-photon absorbing sensitizers and triplet forming cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes. View Full-Text
Keywords: photodynamic therapy; tumor selectivity; photosensitizer; polymeric micelles; singlet oxygen production; amphiphilic; drug delivery; nanoparticles; triplet photosensitizer photodynamic therapy; tumor selectivity; photosensitizer; polymeric micelles; singlet oxygen production; amphiphilic; drug delivery; nanoparticles; triplet photosensitizer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mehraban, N.; Freeman, H.S. Developments in PDT Sensitizers for Increased Selectivity and Singlet Oxygen Production. Materials 2015, 8, 4421-4456.

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