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Materials 2015, 8(7), 4299-4315; doi:10.3390/ma8074299

Poly(Dopamine)-Assisted Immobilization of Xu Duan on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid) Scaffolds to Up-Regulate Osteogenic and Angiogenic Markers of Bone Marrow Stem Cells

1
Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
2
Department of Thoracic Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
3
School of Medicine, College of Medicine, College of Public Health, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franz E. Weber
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2808 KB, uploaded 14 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Three-dimensional printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating and Xu Duan (XD) immobilization to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). We prepared PLA scaffolds and coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PLA/PDA/XD were characterized by XPS. PLA/PDA/XD controlled hBMSCs’ responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression of cells was increased and promoted cell attachment depended on the XD content. In osteogenesis assay, the osteogenesis markers of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA/PDA scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hBMSCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: poly (lactic acid); dopamine; 3D printed-scaffold; tissue engineering; osteogenic; angiogenic poly (lactic acid); dopamine; 3D printed-scaffold; tissue engineering; osteogenic; angiogenic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yeh, C.-H.; Chen, Y.-W.; Shie, M.-Y.; Fang, H.-Y. Poly(Dopamine)-Assisted Immobilization of Xu Duan on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid) Scaffolds to Up-Regulate Osteogenic and Angiogenic Markers of Bone Marrow Stem Cells. Materials 2015, 8, 4299-4315.

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