Next Article in Journal
Phononic Band Gaps in 2D Quadratic and 3D Cubic Cellular Structures
Next Article in Special Issue
Bismuth Sodium Titanate Based Materials for Piezoelectric Actuators
Previous Article in Journal
Microstructural Changes Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction during Standard Mortar Test
Previous Article in Special Issue
Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Materials 2015, 8(12), 8304-8326; doi:10.3390/ma8125456

Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions

1
Institute for Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, 1 Wurzburg Loan, Dundee DD2 1FD, UK
2
School of Science and Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK
3
Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
4
School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lorena Pardo
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4235 KB, uploaded 2 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Piezocrystals, especially the relaxor-based ferroelectric crystals, have been subject to intense investigation and development within the past three decades, motivated by the performance advantages offered by their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients and higher electromechanical coupling coefficients than piezoceramics. Structural anisotropy of piezocrystals also provides opportunities for devices to operate in novel vibration modes, such as the d36 face shear mode, with domain engineering and special crystal cuts. These piezocrystal characteristics contribute to their potential usage in a wide range of low- and high-power ultrasound applications. In such applications, conventional piezoelectric materials are presently subject to varying mechanical stress/pressure, temperature and electric field conditions. However, as observed previously, piezocrystal properties are significantly affected by a single such condition or a combination of conditions. Laboratory characterisation of the piezocrystal properties under these conditions is therefore essential to fully understand these materials and to allow electroacoustic transducer design in realistic scenarios. This will help to establish the extent to which these high performance piezocrystals can replace conventional piezoceramics in demanding applications. However, such characterisation requires specific experimental arrangements, examples of which are reported here, along with relevant results. The measurements include high frequency-resolution impedance spectroscopy with the piezocrystal material under mechanical stress 0–60 MPa, temperature 20–200 °C, high electric AC drive and DC bias. A laser Doppler vibrometer and infrared thermal camera are also integrated into the measurement system for vibration mode shape scanning and thermal conditioning with high AC drive. Three generations of piezocrystal have been tested: (I) binary, PMN-PT; (II) ternary, PIN-PMN-PT; and (III) doped ternary, Mn:PIN-PMN-PT. Utilising resonant mode analysis, variations in elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants and coupling coefficients have been analysed, and tests with thermal conditioning have been carried out to assess the stability of the piezocrystals under high power conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: piezocrystal; piezoelectric characterisation; high power; high resolution; high stress field; high temperature field; high electric drive field; mode shape; thermal response piezocrystal; piezoelectric characterisation; high power; high resolution; high stress field; high temperature field; high electric drive field; mode shape; thermal response
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, X.; Qiu, Z.; Jiang, T.; Sadiq, M.R.; Huang, Z.; Demore, C.E.M.; Cochran, S. Functional Piezocrystal Characterisation under Varying Conditions. Materials 2015, 8, 8304-8326.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Materials EISSN 1996-1944 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top