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Materials 2015, 8(12), 8183-8194; doi:10.3390/ma8125457

The Effect of Niobium Doping on the Electrical Properties of 0.4(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-0.6BiFeO3 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, Korea
School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-773, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lorena Pardo
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials)
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Ceramics in the system (Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-BiFeO3 have good electromechanical properties and temperature stability. However, the high conductivity inherent in BiFeO3-based ceramics complicates measurement of the ferroelectric properties. In the present work, doping with niobium (Nb) is carried out to reduce the conductivity of (Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-BiFeO3. Powders of composition 0.4(K0.5Bi0.5)Ti1−xNbxO3-0.6BiFe1−xNbxO3 (x = 0, 0.01 and 0.03) are prepared by the mixed oxide method and sintered at 1050 °C for 1 h. The effect of Nb doping on the structure is examined by X-ray diffraction. The microstructure is examined by scanning electron microscopy. The variation in relative permittivity with temperature is measured using an impedance analyzer. Ferroelectric properties are measured at room temperature using a Sawyer Tower circuit. Piezoelectric properties are measured using a d33 meter and a contact type displacement sensor. All the samples have high density, a rhombohedral unit cell and equiaxed, micron-sized grains. All the samples show relaxor-like behavior. Nb doping causes a reduction in conductivity by one to two orders of magnitude at 200 °C. The samples have narrow P-E loops reminiscent of a linear dielectric. The samples all possess bipolar butterfly S-E loops characteristic of a classic ferroelectric material. Nb doping causes a decrease in d33 and Smax/Emax. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead-free piezoelectric; BiFeO3; Nb; dielectric properties; piezoelectric properties lead-free piezoelectric; BiFeO3; Nb; dielectric properties; piezoelectric properties

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fisher, J.G.; Jang, S.-H.; Park, M.-S.; Sun, H.; Moon, S.-H.; Lee, J.-S.; Hussain, A. The Effect of Niobium Doping on the Electrical Properties of 0.4(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3-0.6BiFeO3 Lead-Free Piezoelectric Ceramics. Materials 2015, 8, 8183-8194.

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