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Materials 2014, 7(4), 2956-2977; doi:10.3390/ma7042956
Article

Influence of Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Deposition and EDC/NHS Activated Heparin Immobilization onto Silk Fibroin Fabric

1
, 1
, 1,*  and 1,2
Received: 2 February 2014; in revised form: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 11 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Abstract: To enhance the hemocompatibility of silk fibroin fabric as biomedical material, polyelectrolytes architectures have been assembled through the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique on silk fibroin fabric (SFF). In particular, 1.5 and 2.5 bilayer of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes were assembled onto SFF using poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as polycationic polymer and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as polyanionic polymer with PAH topmost. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) activated with 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) was then immobilized on its surface. Alcian Blue staining, toluidine blue assay and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of heparin on modified SFF surfaces. The surface morphology of the modified silk fibroin fabric surfaces was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and obtained increased roughness. Negligible hemolytic effect and a higher concentration of free hemoglobin by a kinetic clotting time test ensured the improved biological performance of the modified fibroin fabric. Overall, the deposition of 2.5 bilayer was found effective in terms of biological and surface properties of the modified fibroin fabric compared to 1.5 bilayer self-assembly technique. Therefore, this novel approach to surface modification may demonstrate long term patency in future in vivo animal trials of small diameter silk fibroin vascular grafts.
Keywords: silk fibroin fabric; layer-by-layer; heparin; EDC/NHS; poly(allylamine hydrochloride); poly(acrylic acid); low molecular weight heparin (LMWH); hemocompatibility silk fibroin fabric; layer-by-layer; heparin; EDC/NHS; poly(allylamine hydrochloride); poly(acrylic acid); low molecular weight heparin (LMWH); hemocompatibility
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Elahi, M.F.; Guan, G.; Wang, L.; King, M.W. Influence of Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Deposition and EDC/NHS Activated Heparin Immobilization onto Silk Fibroin Fabric. Materials 2014, 7, 2956-2977.

AMA Style

Elahi MF, Guan G, Wang L, King MW. Influence of Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Deposition and EDC/NHS Activated Heparin Immobilization onto Silk Fibroin Fabric. Materials. 2014; 7(4):2956-2977.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elahi, M. F.; Guan, Guoping; Wang, Lu; King, Martin W. 2014. "Influence of Layer-by-Layer Polyelectrolyte Deposition and EDC/NHS Activated Heparin Immobilization onto Silk Fibroin Fabric." Materials 7, no. 4: 2956-2977.


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