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Materials 2014, 7(4), 2459-2473; doi:10.3390/ma7042459

Preparation of Chitosan-Based Hemostatic Sponges by Supercritical Fluid Technology

1,2,3,* , 1,2,3
1 College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, Fujiang, China 2 Institute of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, Fujian, China 3 Institute of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, Fujian, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Using ammonium bicarbonate (AB) particles as a porogen, chitosan (CS)-based hemostatic porous sponges were prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide due to its low viscosity, small surface tension, and good compatibility with organic solvent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra demonstrated that the chemical compositions of CS and poly-(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) were not altered during the phase inversion process. The morphology and structure of the sponge after the supercritical fluid (SCF) process were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting hemostatic sponges showed a relatively high porosity (about 80%) with a controllable pore size ranging from 0.1 to 200 µm. The concentration of PVM/MA had no significant influence on the porosity of the sponges. Comparative experiments on biological assessment and hemostatic effect between the resulting sponges and Avitene® were also carried out. With the incorporation of PVM/MA into the CS-based sponges, the water absorption rate of the sponges increased significantly, and the CS-PVM/MA sponges showed a similar water absorption rate (about 90%) to that of Avitene®. The results of the whole blood clotting experiment and animal experiment also demonstrated that the clotting ability of the CS-PVM/MA sponges was similar to that of Avitene®. All these results elementarily verified that the sponges prepared in this study were suitable for hemostasis and demonstrated the feasibility of using SCF-assisted phase inversion technology to produce hemostatic porous sponges.
Keywords: chitosan; hemostatic sponge; porous structure; supercritical fluids chitosan; hemostatic sponge; porous structure; supercritical fluids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Song, H.-F.; Chen, A.-Z.; Wang, S.-B.; Kang, Y.-Q.; Ye, S.-F.; Liu, Y.-G.; Wu, W.-G. Preparation of Chitosan-Based Hemostatic Sponges by Supercritical Fluid Technology. Materials 2014, 7, 2459-2473.

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