Materials 2013, 6(7), 2713-2722; doi:10.3390/ma6072713
Article

Cytotoxic Effects of Hydroxylated Fullerenes in Three Types of Liver Cells

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Received: 27 April 2013; in revised form: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Fullerenes C60 have attracted considerable attention in the biomedical field due to their interesting properties. Although there has been a concern that C60 could be metabolized to hydroxylated fullerenes (C60(OH)x) in vivo, there is little information on the effect of hydroxylated C60 on liver cells. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of fullerene C60 and various hydroxylated C60 derivatives, C60(OH)2, C60(OH)6–12, C60(OH)12 and C60(OH)36, with three different types of liver cells, dRLh-84, HepG2 and primary cultured rat hepatocytes. C60, C60(OH)2 and C60(OH)36 exhibited little or no cytotoxicity in all of the cell types, while C60(OH)6–12 and C60(OH)12 induced cytotoxic effects in dRLh-84 cells, accompanied by the appearance of numerous vacuoles around the nucleus. Moreover, mitochondrial activity in liver cells was significantly inhibited by C60(OH)6–12 and C60(OH)12. These results indicate that the number of hydroxyl groups on C60(OH)x contribute to the difference of their cytotoxic potential and mitochondrial damage in liver cells.
Keywords: hydroxylated fullerene; C60; cytotoxic activity; liver cells; mitochondrial damage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shimizu, K.; Kubota, R.; Kobayashi, N.; Tahara, M.; Sugimoto, N.; Nishimura, T.; Ikarashi, Y. Cytotoxic Effects of Hydroxylated Fullerenes in Three Types of Liver Cells. Materials 2013, 6, 2713-2722.

AMA Style

Shimizu K, Kubota R, Kobayashi N, Tahara M, Sugimoto N, Nishimura T, Ikarashi Y. Cytotoxic Effects of Hydroxylated Fullerenes in Three Types of Liver Cells. Materials. 2013; 6(7):2713-2722.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shimizu, Kumiko; Kubota, Reiji; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Tahara, Maiko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki. 2013. "Cytotoxic Effects of Hydroxylated Fullerenes in Three Types of Liver Cells." Materials 6, no. 7: 2713-2722.

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