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Cytotoxic Effects of Hydroxylated Fullerenes in Three Types of Liver Cells
Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan
Division of Food Additives, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo Heisei University, Uruidominami 4-1, Ichihara-shi, Chiba 290-0193, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2013; in revised form: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 2 July 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
Abstract: Fullerenes C60 have attracted considerable attention in the biomedical field due to their interesting properties. Although there has been a concern that C60 could be metabolized to hydroxylated fullerenes (C60(OH)x) in vivo, there is little information on the effect of hydroxylated C60 on liver cells. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of fullerene C60 and various hydroxylated C60 derivatives, C60(OH)2, C60(OH)6–12, C60(OH)12 and C60(OH)36, with three different types of liver cells, dRLh-84, HepG2 and primary cultured rat hepatocytes. C60, C60(OH)2 and C60(OH)36 exhibited little or no cytotoxicity in all of the cell types, while C60(OH)6–12 and C60(OH)12 induced cytotoxic effects in dRLh-84 cells, accompanied by the appearance of numerous vacuoles around the nucleus. Moreover, mitochondrial activity in liver cells was significantly inhibited by C60(OH)6–12 and C60(OH)12. These results indicate that the number of hydroxyl groups on C60(OH)x contribute to the difference of their cytotoxic potential and mitochondrial damage in liver cells.
Keywords: hydroxylated fullerene; C60; cytotoxic activity; liver cells; mitochondrial damage
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MDPI and ACS Style
Shimizu, K.; Kubota, R.; Kobayashi, N.; Tahara, M.; Sugimoto, N.; Nishimura, T.; Ikarashi, Y. Cytotoxic Effects of Hydroxylated Fullerenes in Three Types of Liver Cells. Materials 2013, 6, 2713-2722.
Shimizu K, Kubota R, Kobayashi N, Tahara M, Sugimoto N, Nishimura T, Ikarashi Y. Cytotoxic Effects of Hydroxylated Fullerenes in Three Types of Liver Cells. Materials. 2013; 6(7):2713-2722.
Shimizu, Kumiko; Kubota, Reiji; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Tahara, Maiko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki. 2013. "Cytotoxic Effects of Hydroxylated Fullerenes in Three Types of Liver Cells." Materials 6, no. 7: 2713-2722.