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Multiscale Microstructures and Microstructural Effects on the Reliability of Microbumps in Three-Dimensional Integration
School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, 135 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou 510275, China
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU, UK
Fraunhofer Center for Applied Microstructure Diagnostics CAM, Walter-Huelse-Str. 1, Halle 06120, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2013; in revised form: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 22 October 2013
Abstract: The dimensions of microbumps in three-dimensional integration reach microscopic scales and thus necessitate a study of the multiscale microstructures in microbumps. Here, we present simulated mesoscale and atomic-scale microstructures of microbumps using phase field and phase field crystal models. Coupled microstructure, mechanical stress, and electromigration modeling was performed to highlight the microstructural effects on the reliability of microbumps. The results suggest that the size and geometry of microbumps can influence both the mesoscale and atomic-scale microstructural formation during solidification. An external stress imposed on the microbump can cause ordered phase growth along the boundaries of the microbump. Mesoscale microstructures formed in the microbumps from solidification, solid state phase separation, and coarsening processes suggest that the microstructures in smaller microbumps are more heterogeneous. Due to the differences in microstructures, the von Mises stress distributions in microbumps of different sizes and geometries vary. In addition, a combined effect resulting from the connectivity of the phase morphology and the amount of interface present in the mesoscale microstructure can influence the electromigration reliability of microbumps.
Keywords: 3D integration; microbump; multiscale microstructure; reliability
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MDPI and ACS Style
Huang, Z.; Xiong, H.; Wu, Z.; Conway, P.; Altmann, F. Multiscale Microstructures and Microstructural Effects on the Reliability of Microbumps in Three-Dimensional Integration. Materials 2013, 6, 4707-4736.
Huang Z, Xiong H, Wu Z, Conway P, Altmann F. Multiscale Microstructures and Microstructural Effects on the Reliability of Microbumps in Three-Dimensional Integration. Materials. 2013; 6(10):4707-4736.
Huang, Zhiheng; Xiong, Hua; Wu, Zhiyong; Conway, Paul; Altmann, Frank. 2013. "Multiscale Microstructures and Microstructural Effects on the Reliability of Microbumps in Three-Dimensional Integration." Materials 6, no. 10: 4707-4736.