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Morphological Change of Heat Treated Bovine Bone: A Comparative Study
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2012; in revised form: 31 October 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Abstract: In this work, untreated bovine cortical bones (BCBs) were exposed to a range of heat treatments in order to determine at which temperature the apatite develops an optimum morphology comprising porous nano hydroxyapatite (nanoHAp) crystals. Rectangular specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 3–5 mm) of BCB were prepared, being excised in normal to longitudinal and transverse directions. Specimens were sintered at up to 900 °C under ambient pressure in order to produce apatites by two steps sintering. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attached to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy detector. For the first time, morphology of the HAp particles was predicted by XRD, and it was verified by SEM. The results show that an equiaxed polycrystalline HAp particle with uniform porosity was produced at 900 °C. It indicates that a porous nanoHAp achieved by sintering at 900 °C can be an ideal candidate as an in situ scaffold for load-bearing tissue applications.
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; scaffold; shape; crystallite; porosity; equiaxed
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Pramanik, S.; Hanif, A.S.M.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.; Abu Osman, N.A. Morphological Change of Heat Treated Bovine Bone: A Comparative Study. Materials 2013, 6, 65-75.
Pramanik S, Hanif ASM, Pingguan-Murphy B, Abu Osman NA. Morphological Change of Heat Treated Bovine Bone: A Comparative Study. Materials. 2013; 6(1):65-75.
Pramanik, Sumit; Hanif, Asyikin S.M.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Abu Osman, Noor A. 2013. "Morphological Change of Heat Treated Bovine Bone: A Comparative Study." Materials 6, no. 1: 65-75.