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Materials 2011, 4(2), 417-447; doi:10.3390/ma4020417

A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals

Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PJ, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2011 / Accepted: 14 February 2011 / Published: 16 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ferroelectric & Piezoelectric Materials)
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Abstract

The present paper reviews models of domain structure in ferroelectric crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Common crystal structures in ferroelectric materials are described and the theory of compatible domain patterns is introduced. Applications to multi-rank laminates are presented. Alternative models employing phase-field and related techniques are reviewed. The paper then presents methods of observing ferroelectric domain structure, including optical, polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and piezo-force microscopy. Use of more than one technique for unambiguous identification of the domain structure is also described.
Keywords: single crystals ferroelectrics; microstructure; characterization techniques single crystals ferroelectrics; microstructure; characterization techniques
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Potnis, P.R.; Tsou, N.-T.; Huber, J.E. A Review of Domain Modelling and Domain Imaging Techniques in Ferroelectric Crystals. Materials 2011, 4, 417-447.

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