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Materials 2011, 4(1), 169-182; doi:10.3390/ma4010169

Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(V)Oxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement

1
Department of Electronics, Computing and projects, Technical University of Cartagena, Campus Muralla del Mar. C/Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena, Spain
2
Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
3
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2010 / Revised: 27 December 2010 / Accepted: 7 January 2011 / Published: 11 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaic Materials)
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Abstract

The use of hydrated vanadium(V)oxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) processing of all layers. The devices were prepared on flexible polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) and had the structure PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5·(H2O)n/Ag. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(V)oxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP). Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer by varying the concentration of the VTIP precursor over two orders of magnitude. Hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layers were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) for completed modules was up to 0.18%, in contrast to single cells where efficiencies of 0.4% were achieved. Stability tests under indoor and outdoor conditions were accomplished over three weeks on a solar tracker.
Keywords: roll-to-roll printing/coating; polymer solar cells; solution processing; PEDOT:PSS free; hydrated vanadium(V)oxide roll-to-roll printing/coating; polymer solar cells; solution processing; PEDOT:PSS free; hydrated vanadium(V)oxide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Espinosa, N.; Dam, H.F.; Tanenbaum, D.M.; Andreasen, J.W.; Jørgensen, M.; Krebs, F.C. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(V)Oxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement. Materials 2011, 4, 169-182.

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